Evolution of the Islamic Judicial System: Justice and Principles in the Governance of Caliph Umar Bin Khattab

judicial institution Islamic justice Quranic teachings Umar ibn Khattab

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December 31, 2023

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The realm of justice in Islamic law holds immense significance, and its inception dates back to the appointment of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. as Allah's messenger for the final generation. From that moment, Prophet Muhammad assumed the role of the first judge in the Islamic world, overseeing and deciding on all cases presented. Following the passing of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W., the responsibility, particularly in the domain of justice, transitioned to the Khulafa’urrasyidin (Abubakar, Umar, Usman, and Ali) as caliphs in Islam. In the execution of legal matters within the judicial system, the caliphs consistently adhered to the guidance of the Quran, the Sunnah, and Ijma. The judges were individuals who possessed a deep understanding of the Quran, the Sunnah, and Ijma. Compensation for judges was determined in accordance with regulations set by the caliph. Judges were also dispatched to regions under Islamic rule, emphasizing a commitment to justice in their rulings. The legacy of a just and principled judicial system within the Islamic legal framework continued to thrive, with leaders upholding the foundations of the Quranic teachings and the Prophet's traditions.