Main Article Content

Muhammad Nur Prabowo Setyabudi



Theodicy was born as a response to the problem of evil and its relationship to the power of God, and at the same time, as an assertion of Omnipotence, Omnibenevolence, and Omniscience of God. This article presents the interpretation of Frithjof Schuon's thought or Shaykh Isa Nur al-Din Ahmad as a Muslim thinker of the tradition of Perennialism philosophy that emphasizes universalism and esoterism. The article describes Schuon's principal thought concerning theodicy, especially how esoteric Islamic theodicy sees the nature of evil, the relationship of evil with the free will of humans and determination of God (predestination). Furthermore, this article tries to draw the extent to which esoterism is supportive and coherent with texts that are exoterically expressed in the Qur'an. Basically, esoteric Islamic theodicy parallels with the principle of Islamic mysticism. In the last part, this article tries to take the moral significance of the notions of esoteric Islamic theodicy.


Calder, Norman, “Theodicy in Islamic Thought: The Dispute over al-Ghazālī's 'Best of All Possible Worlds”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol.49, No. 1, In Honour of Ann K. S. Lambton. 1986.
Corbin, Henry, History of Islamic Philosophy, London: Kegan Paul International, 1962.
Esposito, John. L. Ensiklopedia Oxford: Dunia Islam Modern. Jakarta: Penerbit Mizan. 2001.
Gultom, Andri Fransiskus, “Enigma Kejahatan dalam Sekam Filsafat Ketuhanan”, Intizar, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2016.
Khan, Asma Hussain,”The Problem of Evil: Islam Theodicy”, Proceedings of Socioint14-International Conference on Social and Humanities. Istambul:Turkey. 2014.
Lings, Martin & Clinton M (ed), The Underlying Religion: An Introduction to the Perennial Philosophy, Canada: World Wisdom, 2007.
Meister, Chad, Introducing Philosophy of Religion, London: Routledge, 2009.
Mithcell, Philip Irving, “Theodicy: an Overview” dalam https://www3.dbu.edu/mitchell/documents/TheodicyOverview.pdf
Oldmeadaw, Harry, “The Heart of Religio Perennis: Frithjof Schuon on Esoterism” dalam Edward Crangle (ed), Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, Sydney University, 2004.
Peterson, Michael, Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Rouzati, Nasrin, “Evil and Human Suffering in Islamic Thought: Towards a Mystical Theodicy”, Religions, Vol. 9, No. 47, 2018.
Setyabudi, Muhammad Nur Prabowo, “Islamic Virtues in the Javanese Muslim Tradition: A Philosophical Investigation on Damardjati Supadjar’s Religious Ethics”, Ijtimaiyya: Journal of Muslim Society Research, Vol. 1 No. 1, Sept. 2016.
Setyabudi, M Nur Prabowo & Albar Adetary Hasibuan, Pengantar Studi Etika Kontemporer: Teoritis dan Terapan, Malang: UB Press, 2017.
Sabri, Muhammad, Keberagamaan Yang Saling Menyapa: Perspektif Filsafat Perennial, Yogyakarta: Ittaqa Press, 1999.
Sindler, Lloyd, Comparative Study of Christian, Jewish and Islamic Theodicy (Dissertation), Charlotte, North Carolina, 2011.
Schuon, Frithjof Dimensions of Islam, alih bahasa P.N. Townsend, Pakistan: Suhail Academy, 1999.
Schuon, Frithjof, “The Question of Theodicies”, Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 8, No. 1, Winter, 1974.
Supadjar, Damardjati, Mawas Diri: Dari Diri yang Tanggal ke Diri yang Terdaftar, Diakui, Disamakan yakni Diri yang Terus Terang dan Terang Terus, Yogyakarta: Philosophy Press, 2001.
Urban, Hugh B., “A Dance of Masks: The Esoteric Ethics of Frithjof Schuon” dalam G. William Barnard & Jeffrey J. Kripal (eds.), Crossing Boundaries: Essays on the Ethical Status of Mysticism , New York: Seven Bridges Press, 2002.
Nasr, Sayyid Hussein, “Frithjof Schuon and the Islamic Tradition”, Sophia, Vol. 5, Number 1, Summer 1999.
Nasr, Sayyid Hussein, ”Introducing The Writing of Frithjof Schuon” dalam The World Wisdom, online: library:www.worldwisdom.com/public/library/default.aspx.
Zubaidi, Sujiyat, “Antara Teodisi dan Monoteisme: Memaknai Esensi Keadilan Ilahi” dalam Jurnal Tsaqafah, Vol. 7 No. 2, 2011.