• Arwatrisi Ediani Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Sajarwa Universitas Gadjah Mada



deixes of memory, demonstratives, referents


Contexts in the identification of referents can be developed from external reality to cognitive reality or memory marked by the French demonstrative determinants ce, cet, cette, and ces as deixes of memory. Information in memory deixis referents can be categorized into the different statuses of information for the hearer, i.e. new information and old information. This study employed the qualitative-descriptive method with the data obtained from the novel Le Rouge et le Noir (1830) written by Stendhal. The study’s findings show that memory deixis referents can be identified through the way they evoke the readers’ old memories or (2) evoke the speakers’ memories and provide new information to the reader. In addition, deixes of memory can be demonstrative and performative. They may be used to describe the social life in 19th century France, to show the speakers’ emotional states, or to introduce a new topic in the text.


Adamson, Sylvia. 2006. “Deixis and the Renaissance Art of Self Construction.” Sederi Yearbook 16: 5-29

Ashsyuhada, Juhal. 2018. Deiksis Empati Referen Demonstratif This dan That pada Film The Fault In Our Stars (Thesis) Bandung: Universitas Komputer Indonesia

Biquard, Claire. 1993. “Piété et Foi Dans Le Faubourg Saint-Germain au XIXe Siècle.” Histoire, Économie et Société 12 (2): 299-318.

Bordas, Éric. 2001. “Un Stylème Dix-Neuviémiste : Le Déterminant Discontinu Un de Ces...Qui...” L Information Grammaticale 90 (1): 32-43.

Chafe, Wallace L. 1976. “Givenness, Contrastiveness, Definiteness, Subjects, Topics, and Point of View in Subject and Topic.” In Charles Li (ed.). Symposium on Subject and Topic: 25-55. New York: Academic Press

Clark, Herbert H. 1996. Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Compton, R Andrew. 2017. “Deixis Variation as a Literary Device in Ezekie: Utilizing an Act of Neglected Linguistic Feature in Exegesis.” Mid-America Journal of Theology 28: 77-107

Dama, Idrus. 2020. Memori, Trauma, dan Respon Terhadap Peristiwa Traumatis dalam Novel Never Let Me Go Karya Kazuo Ishiguro (S2 Thesis). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada

Diessel, Holger. 1999. Demonstratives: Form, Function, and Grammaticalization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing

Dubois, Jean, and Rene Lagane. 2001. Grammaire. Paris: Larousse

Eagle, Christopher. 2006. “On ‘This’ and ‘That’ in Proust: Deixis and Typologies in À La Recherche Du Temps Perdu.” MLN 121 (4): 989-1008

Garrioch, David. 2007. “La Bourgeoisie Parisienne au Début du XIXe Siècle: Le Cas du Faubourg Saint-Marcel.” Revue d’Histoire du XIXe Siècle 34 (June): 39-53.

Gundel, Jeanette K. 1974. “The Role of Topic and Comment in Linguistic Theory”. Austin: University of Texas

Hargreaves, Alec G. 1989. “Presence and Distance in Travel Literature Deixis in Pierre Loti’s Les Pagodes d’Or”. Romance Studies 7 (2): 53-61.

Himmelmann, Nikolaus P. 1996. “Demonstratives in Narrative Discourse.” In Barbara A Fox (ed.). Studies in Anaphora.

Khachaturyan, Maria. 2019. “Knowing Is Belonging: Recognitional Deixis and Emergence of Common Ground in Religious Conversion.” Signs and Society 7 (2): 186-216.

Kuno, Susumo. 1972. “Functional Sentence Perspective: A Case Study from Japanese and English.” Linguistic Inquiry 3 (3): 269-320

Maingueneau, Dominique. 2005. Linguistique Pour Le Texte Littéraire. Paris: Armand Colin

Maza, Sarah. 2007. “Construire et Déconstruire La Bourgeoisie : Discours Politique et Imaginaire Social au Début du XIXe Siècle.” Revue d’Histoire du XIXe Siècle34 (June): 21-37.

Muhyidin, Asep. 2019. “Deiksis Dalam Novel Daun yang Jatuh Tak Pernah Membenci Angin Karya Tere Liye dan Skenario Pembelajarannya di SMA”. Metalingua 17 (1): 45-46

Nanto, Nanto, Andi Haris Prabawa & Laili Etika Rahmawati. 2015. Deiksis dalam Teks Anekdot Pada Media Massa Koran Solopos Edisi September sampai November Tahun 2014. Surakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Nurrachman, Nani IR. 2016. “Dari Memori Menjadi Narasi: Trauma Sosial dalam Sejarah Nasional.” Jurnal HAM 8

Nuryadin, Sulandri. 2017. “Educational Values in Roman: Le Rouge et le Noir/The Red and the Black and the Chartreuse of Parma Written by Stendhal”. International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review (IJLECR) 3 (1): 35-48.

Paveau, Marie-Anne. 2006. “Chapitre 6. Mondes Partagés”. In Les Prédiscours: Sens, Mémoire, Cognition: 173-86. Sorbonne: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle.

Pettazzoni, Raffaele. 1955. “L’Esprit Du Paganisme.” Diogène 9: 3

Rahayu, Anisa Dwi, and Maria Mintowati. 2019. “Bentuk dan Fungsi Sosial Deiksis dalam Film 不能说的秘密 karya 周杰伦 (Jay Chou)”. Jurnal Cakrawala Mandarin 2 (2): 17.

Rühlemann, Christoph & Matthew Brook O’Donnell. 2014. “Deixis.” In Karin Aijmer & Christoph Rühlemann (eds.). Corpus Pragmatics: 331-359. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sajarwa. 2000. “Status Informasi dalam Kalimat dan Wacana Bahasa Prancis.” Humaniora 12 (3): 279-284

Skilton, Amalia E. 2019. “Spatial and Non-Spatial Deixis in Cushillococha Ticuna.” Berkeley: University of California

Spenader, Jennifer. 2003. “Factive Presuppositions, Accommodation and Information Structure.” Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3).

Videlier, Philippe. 1986. Les Italiens de La Région Lyonnaise. Sous La Direction de Pierre Milza.

Wijaya, David Kurnia. 2000. “Representasi Nilai Kebaharian dalam Novel Mata dan Manusia Laut Karya Okky Madasari: Perspektif Memori Kolektif.” Bapala 7 (2)