Companionship Of Psychological Hardiness, Narcissism, And Perfectionism On Depression Tendency Among Undergraduate Students In Oyo State, Nigeria


  • Samuel Toyin Akanbi Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria
  • Joyce Mcivir Terwase Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria
  • Benita Dooshima Aki Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria



Depression Tendency, Psychological Hardiness, Perfectionism, Pathological Narcissism


The aim of this study was to examine the companionship of psychological hardiness, narcissism, and perfectionism on depression tendency among undergraduate students in Oyo State, Nigeria. A qualitative research design by means of correlational approach was adopted to pilot the study. A total of one thousand and eighty-six (1086) participants selected through a process of stratified random sampling from Oyo State, Nigeria, partook in the study. Four measuring instruments: Depression Proneness Rating Scale-11 (α=.77), Dispositional Resilience Scale (α= .73), Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (α= .87), and Pathological Narcissism Inventory (α= .91) were used to garner data. Collected data were subjected to analysis through Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression model. Findings revealed that a combination of predictor variable accounted for 42% of the total variance in depression tendency (R2=.417; F (5,1080)= 154.768; p<.01). Independently, psychological hardiness (r=-. 404; β-.236; t= -9.486; p<.01), Normal Perfectionism (r= -.370; β= -.355; t=-12.530; p<.01), and narcissistic grandiosity (r= .238; β=-.213; t= -7.532) yielded anti correlational relationship with depression tendency. However, the relationships of Narcissistic Vulnerability (r=.282; β=286; t=9.866; p< .01) and neurotic perfectionism (r= .238; β=.278; 10.031; p<.01) with depression tendency yielded positive prediction. The study outcomes were discussed, and the studied variables were recommended to be considered while diagnosing depression symptoms among undergraduate students.

Author Biography

Samuel Toyin Akanbi, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State

Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling


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How to Cite

Akanbi, S. T., Terwase, J. M. ., & Aki, B. D. (2023). Companionship Of Psychological Hardiness, Narcissism, And Perfectionism On Depression Tendency Among Undergraduate Students In Oyo State, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 4(2).

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