• Umi Pujiyanti Western Sydney University, Australia
  • Muhammad Rizal UIN Raden Mas Said Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Robith Khoiril Umam UIN Raden Mas Said Surakarta, Indonesia



adaptation, anthropomorphic, narratives, didacticization, ergodic literature, paideia


Paideia philosophy urges education and anything derived or related to it to respond to the zeitgeist of an era. Thus, techniques to deliver any pedagogical materials should position the target users as the axis to disclose them more possibilities to comprehend the materials. One of the techniques is designing anthropomorphic narratives. Studies on this topic circumnavigate around educational domains. Perceiving this issue from the lens of literary adaptation is the gap left by the previous studies. We argue that narrating pedagogical materials anthropomorphically is better termed paideia adaptation. This study attempts to prove the existence of this adaptation type by utilizing qualitative method, indicating the narrative and language features of the adaptation. Implementing the theories of onto fiction by Couceiro-Bueno, ergodic literature by Aarseth, second degree of literature by Genette, anthropomorphism by Weemans and Prévost on a corpus of animated films and games, the findings indicate that paideia adaptation has four narrative features namely anthropomorphic narratives, pseudoreferentiality, metalepsis, and metafictionality. This adaptation also has distinctive language features namely thematization, proairetic decoding, and didacticization. The result discloses a new viewpoint in the study of adaptation.


Aarseth, E. J. (1997). Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature. JHU Press.

Brown, C. (1998). Contrary Things: Exegesis, Dialectic, and the Poetics of Didacticism.

Stanford University Press.

Calleja, G. (2011). In-game: From immersion to incorporation. mit Press.

Couceiro-Bueno, J. C. (2000). Ontofiction: the altered comprehension of the world. Paideia:

Philosophy/Phenomenology of Life Inspiring Education for Our Times, 399-413.

Franco Neto, V., Valero, P., & Guida, A. (2019). Anthropomorphism as a pedagogical device

in Mathematics textbooks for Countryside Brazil. In 10th International Mathematics Education and Society Conference (MES 10), Hyderabad, India, January 28-February 2, 2019. Mathematics Education and Society (MES).

Gardner, J., & Herman, D. (2011). Graphic narratives and narrative theory:

Introduction. SubStance, 3-13.

Genette, G. (1997). Palimpsests: Literature in the second degree (Vol. 8). U of Nebraska


Hasegawa, Y. (2011). Soliloquy for linguistic investigation. Studies in Language.

International Journal sponsored by the Foundation “Foundations of Language”, 35(1), 1-40.

Hirschbein, R. (2015). The United States and terrorism: an ironic perspective. Rowman &


Hutcheon, L. (2012). A theory of adaptation. Routledge.

Koike, M. & Loughnan, S. (2021). Virtual relationships: Anthropomorphism in the digital

age. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 15(6).

Kurenkova, R. A., Plekhanov, Y. A., & Rogacheva, E. Y. (2000). “Methodologos” of Life as

the Basis of Contemporary Education. Paideia: Philosophy/Phenomenology of Life Inspiring Education for Our Times, 25-33.

Lanier Jr, C. D., Fowler III, A. R., & Rader, C. S. (2014). ‘What are you looking at, ya

hockey puck?!’: Anthropomorphizing brand relationships in the Toy Story trilogy. In Brand Mascots (pp. 55-74). Routledge.

Macrae, A. (2019). Discourse deixis in metafiction: The language of metanarration,

metalepsis and disnarration. Routledge.

McCabe, S., & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2019). The impact of subtle anthropomorphism on gender

differences in learning conservation ecology in Indonesian school children. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 18(1), 13-24.

McGellin, R. T. L., Grand, A., & Sullivan, M. (2021). Stop avoiding the inevitable: The

effects of anthropomorphism in science writing for non-experts. Public Understanding of Science, 30(5), 621-640.

Newall, V. J. (1987). The adaptation of folklore and tradition (Folklorismus). Folklore, 98(2),


Nikolajeva, M. (2010). Interpretative codes and implied readers of children’s picturebooks.

In New directions in picturebook research (pp. 45-58). Routledge.

Paxson, T. D. (1985). Art and paideia. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 19(1), 67-78.

Perfetti, C. A., & Goldman, S. R. (1974). Thematization and sentence retrieval. Journal of

Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(1), 70-79.

Roberts, A. J., Handley, S. J., & Polito, V. (2021). The design stance, intentional stance, and

teleological beliefs about biological and nonbiological natural entities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 120(6), 1720.

Schaefer, U. (1991). Fictionality in Old English Poetry. Vox Intexta: Orality and Textuality in

the Middle Ages, 117.

Shen, A. (2018, August 17). Why new Japanese animation series Cells at Work! is a big hit in

China (It’s in the science). Retrieved from South China Morning Post:

Shusterman, R. (2003). Entertainment: A question for aesthetics. The British Journal of

Aesthetics, 43(3), 289-307.

Sorensen, R. A. (1990). Process vagueness. Linguistics and Philosophy, 589-618.

Spradley, J. P. (2016). Participant observation. Waveland Press.

Tamir, P., & Zohar, A. (1991). Anthropomorphism and teleology in reasoning about

biological phenomena. Science Education, 75(1), 57-67.

Valdez, N. (2018, August 26). Scientists Praise ‘Cells at Work!’ For Its Entertaining

Accuracy. Retrieved from

Weemans, M., & Prévost, B. (2014). Introduction. The anthropomorphic lens:

anthropomorphism, microcosmism and analogy in early modern thought and visual arts. Brill.

Whitley, D. (2012). The Idea of Nature in Disney Animation: From Snow White to WALL-E

(Ashgate Studies in Childhood, 1700 to the Present). Ashgate Publishing Group.

Wood, M. (2019). The potential for anthropomorphism in communicating science:

Inspiration from Japan. Cultures of Science, 2(1), 23-34.







Citation Check